Producing petroleum from the underground requires energy and usually some of this required energy comes from the Mother Nature. The hydrocarbon fluids are under pressure because of geological structures. By the nature, the reservoir pressure moves the hydrocarbon in the wellbore to the surface. Additionally, the gas (both soluble gas and free gas) and aquifer (water) in reservoirs under pressure are the driving sources that help move the underground hydrocarbon into to the production tubing and surface.
Today, we will discuss the first reservoir mechanism which is solution gas drive reservoir. When a newly discovered hydrocarbon reservoir is below the bubble point pressure, the gas will be soluble within the oil phase in reservoir. The reservoir pressure decreases as production goes on and this causes emerging and expansion of gas bubbles creating extra energy in the reservoir. These kinds of reservoirs are called as solution gas drive reservoirs.
Crude oil under high pressure may contain large amounts of dissolved gas. When the reservoir pressure is reduced as fluids are withdrawn, gas comes out of the solution and displaces oil from the reservoir to the producing wells. The efficiency of solution gas drive depends on several factors as the amount of gas in solution, the rock and fluid properties and the geological structure of the reservoir.
This reservoir drive mechanism yield quite low oil recovery which is approximately 10-15 % of the original oil in place (OOIP). The oil recovery is quite low because the gas phase is more mobile than the oil phase in the reservoir. Solution gas drive reservoirs are usually good candidates from water-flooding.
There are three petroleum engineering universities in China. They are China University of Petroleum, Beijing, China University of Geosciences and Daqing Petroleum Institute. The contact details are listed below.
China University of Petroleum, Beijing (CUPB), is located in a scenic region of tourist interests in Changping District, Beijing, about 5 miles to the Ming Tombs and 15 miles to the Great Wall. It offers not only engineering programs in oil and gas science including chemical engineering, petroleum engineering, geoscience and mechanical and electronic engineering, but also in computer science, business management and Chinese Language Study programs of a full range from diploma, bachelor’s and master’s to doctoral programs.
Faculty of Petroleum Engineering – China University of Petroleum
Formation evaluation (well logging) is the method to evaluate reservoir formations. In this article, I will describe about the basic formation evaluation and its equipment.
The basic logging tools are as follows:
Caliper Log: One or more arms attach on wellbore surface in order to record hole diameter.
Behavior of Caliper Log response with sand in open hole (See the image below)
We showed about the top 10 oil companies in the world in the previous topic. Those companies are based on several criteria.
Today, I would like to show the interesting information about top 10 oil companies based on oil and gas reserves. You will see that all of them are national oil companies
Saudi Arabian Oil Company
We’re not just Saudi Arabia’s national oil company – we’re also a fully integrated, global petroleum enterprise and a world leader in exploration, production, refining, distribution, shipping and marketing.
We manage the world’s largest proven crude oil reserves of 260.1 billion barrels and the world’s fourth-largest gas reserves, with 279 trillion cubic feet. With headquarters in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, we also have offices in North America, Europe and the Far East.
National Iranian Oil Company
NIOC at a Glance Since 1951, National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC) has been directing and making policies for exploration, drilling, production, research and development, refining, distribution and export of oil, gas, petroleum products.
NIOC, with a vast amount of oil and gas resources, is one of the world’s largest oil companies. At the present time, it is estimated that the company holds 137 billion barrels of liquid hydrocarbons and 29 trillion cubic meters of natural gas.
Qatar General Petroleum Corporation
Qatar Petroleum (QP), a state-owned corporation established in 1974, is responsible for all phases of the oil and gas industry in Qatar. The principal activities of Qatar Petroleum and its subsidiaries and joint ventures cover exploration, drilling and production operations, transport, storage, marketing and sale of crude oil, natural gas liquids, liquefied natural gas, gas-to-liquids, refined products, petrochemicals and fertilizers, and helicopter and financial services.
Qatar Petroleum’s strategy of conducting hydrocarbon exploration and new projects is through Exploration and Production Sharing Agreements (EPSA) and Development and Production Sharing Agreements (DPSA) concluded with major international oil and gas companies.
Iraq National Oil Company
The Iraqi Oil Ministry declared its oil exports for the previous September 2011 which was (63.1) million barrels and their achieved outcome which is about (6,619) billions dollars.
Petroleos de Venezuela.S.A.
Petróleos de Venezuela S.A., the state-owned corporation of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, is responsible for the efficient, profitable, and dependable exploration, production, refining, transport and commerce of hydrocarbons. This company is deeply committed to environmental protection and its main objectives are to foster the harmonic development of the country, to guarantee sovereignty of national resources, to increase endogenous development and to serve and benefit the Venezuelan people, who correspond to their share of the country’s national wealth.
Abu Dhabi National Oil Company
Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC) was established in 1971, to operate in all areas of the oil and gas industry and since then has steadily broadened its activity establishing companies and subsidiaries and creating an integrated oil and gas industry in Abu Dhabi. Today, the company manages and oversees oil production of more than 2.7 million barrels a day which ranks it among the top ten oil and gas companies in the world.
Kuwait Petroleum Corporation
In 1980 Kuwait Petroleum Corporation (KPC) was established as the state owned asset and all other oil companies in Kuwait, including KNPC, became KPC subsidiaries. One year later after the establishment of KPC, the oil sector in Kuwait was restructured on sectorial basis. KNPC became responsible for the oil refining and gas liquefaction industry in addition to the marketing of petroleum products in Kuwait through a chain of filling stations, which reached its peak between 2005/2007 with 119 operating filling stations. In collaboration with KPC the company embarked on studies and plans to modernize refining industry in Kuwait with a multi billion dollar projects to revamp Mina Al-Ahmadi and Mina Abdullah Refineries.
Nigerian National Petroleum Corp.
In addition to its exploration activities, the Corporation was given powers and operational interests in refining, petrochemicals and products transportation as well as marketing. Between 1978 and 1989, NNPC constructed refineries in Warri, Kaduna and Port Harcourt and took over the 35,000-barrel Shell Refinery established in Port Harcourt in 1965.
In 1988, the NNPC was commercialised into 12 strategic business units, covering the entire spectrum of oil industry operations: exploration and production, gas development, refining, distribution, petrochemicals, engineering, and commercial investments.
National Oil Company (Libya)
The National Oil Corporation (NOC) was established on 12 November 1970 , under Law No: 24/1970, replacing the general Libyan Petroleum Corporation which established under Law No. 13 of 1968 to assume the responsibility of the oil sector operations . It was later reorganized under decision No :10/1979 by the General Secretariat of the General People’s Congress, to undertake the realization of the objectives of the development plan in the areas of petroleum , supporting the national economy through increasing , developing and exploiting the oil reserves and operating and investing in those reserves , to realize optimum returns. In carrying out its activities, NOC may enter into participation agreements with other companies and corporations carrying out similar activities.
Sonatrach is the largest oil and gas company in Algeria and Africa. The company operates in exploration, production, pipeline transportation and marketing of hydrocarbons and by products.
As part of a diversification strategy, Sonatrach stepped up investments in power generation, new and renewable energies, water desalination, and mining exploration and exploitation. The international strategy of the company includes operations in several parts of the world namely: in Africa (Mali, Niger, Libya, Egypt), in Europe (Spain, Italy, Portugal, Great Britain), in Latin America (Peru) and in the USA.
With a turnover nearing $56,1 billion in 2010, Sonatrach is ranked first company in Africa and 12th in the world. It is also 4th world LNG exporter, 3rd world LPG exporter and 5th World Natural gas exporter.
Petroleum is a mixture of naturally occurring hydrocarbons that may exist in the solid, liquid or gaseous states, depending upon the conditions of pressure and temperature to which it is subjected. Virtually all petroleum is produced from the reservoir in either liquid or gaseous form, and commonly, these materials are referred to as either crude oil or natural gas, depending upon the state of the hydrocarbon mixture. Petroleum consists of approximately 11-13 wt % hydrogen and 84-87 wt % of carbon. Traces of oxygen, sulphur, nitrogen and helium may be found as impurities in crude oil. Crude oils obtained from different oil reservoirs have widely different characteristics. Some are black, heavy, and thick like tar, and others are brown or nearly clear with low viscosity and low specific gravity. However, nearly all crude oils have elemental analyses within the limits given below.
The following tables demonstrate 1) Elemental Analysis of Typical Crude Oils and 2) Typical Crude Oil Fraction
The define API (American Petroleum Institute) gravity, one should first define the specific gravity of a liquid. Liquid specific gravity, γo , is defined as the ratio of the density of the liquid to the density of water, both taken at the same temperature and pressure.
The most widely used indicator of a crude oils worth to the producer is API gravity. This value is actually a measure of an oil density, and is related to specific gravity by the following equation:
API gravity of 10 is equivalent to the specific gravity of 1. Normally the price, which a producer receives for his/her oil, depends on its gravity, the less dense (higher API) being the most valuable.
The good start for oil field career is to work as Schlumberger field engineer. There are tons of job opportunities with Schulmberger and the company pays you very well. Based on the survey from many people below, you will see how much people earn while they are working with Shlumberger.
The salary is US based and you will get more money if you work at the tougher locations as Middle East, Africa, etc.
If you want to know about SLB interview, please read the following articles : Schlumberger Interview.
The field engineer salary for SLB engineer in USA is listed below:
Schlumberger Field Engineer Trainee Salary (15 surveyors)
Range of salary is 49,000 $ to 88,000 $ per year.
Average salary is 62,967$ per year.
Range of bonus is 800 $ to 30,000 $ per year.
Average bonus is 10,300$ per year.
Schlumberger Junior Field Engineer Salary (30 surveyors)
Range of salary is 42,000 $ to 75,000 $ per year.
Average salary is 56,803$ per year.
Range of bonus is 1,000 $ to 20,000 $ per year.
Average bonus is 12,480$ per year.
Schlumberger Field Engineer Salary (125 surveyors)
Range of salary is 36,000 $ to 130,000 $ per year.
Average salary is 56,331$ per year.
Range of bonus is 3,000 $ to 60,000 $ per year.
Average bonus is 16,029$ per year.
Schlumberger General Field Engineer Salary (14 surveyors)
Range of salary is 56,000 $ to 87,000 $ per year.
Average salary is 72,616$ per year.
Range of bonus is 9,000 $ to 60,000 $ per year.
Average bonus is 27,062$ per year.
Schlumberger Senior Field Engineer Salary (12 surveyors)
Range of salary is 58,000 $ to 120,000 $ per year.
Average salary is 69,888$ per year.
Range of bonus is 10,000 $ to 30,000 $ per year.
Average bonus is 21,000$ per year.
Schlumberger Field Services Manager Salary (17 surveyors)
Range of salary is 80,000 $ to 94,000 $ per year.
Average salary is 84,624$ per year.
People saying about working with Schulumberger
– Had a great time. Met a lot of new people, got the opportunity to travel. I learned new software, how to work in a busy office environment. I enjoyed my internship, the people I met, the process I went through. Great feedback from my mentors. Overall, a great exerience.
– I got hands on experience of working on PLC and other automation products , work environment was great and people are helping
– It is probably the best company to start in the oilfield. Exposure to different jobs, cultures and locations
– It is too much work and also much pressure from supervisor . working hours are not fixed . they will call u on weekend also .
– It is too demanding: physically and intellectually. No time for social life
– Constantly struggled to have enough engineers for busy seasons; don’t expect to have much of a life outside of work
If you want to know about slb interview, please read this article, Schlumberger Interview – How SLB will interview you?
Working with top 10 international oil companies in the world is dream of some people who are working in the petroleum upstream industry. Today, I would like to show you the top 10 oil international companies in the world.
The criteria are not only based on the reserves which the companies acquire. The companies are judged under four different criteria – sales, profit, assets and market value. If you are interested in getting the job with these big oil companies, you can find the information from the websites which we will provide you in this article.
Working as a petroleum engineer in Chevron is a great opportunity because Chevron offers good salary and challenge working experience. The following information is about salary of Chevron petroleum engineers in USA.
Petroleum Engineering Manager
Range of salary is 190,000 $ to 208,000 $ a year.
Average of salary is 200,000 $ a year.
Full time petroleum engineers (data from 45 surveyors)
Range of salary is 77,000 $ to 170,000 $ a year.
Average of salary is 100,382 $ a year.
Petroleum engineers intern (data from 2 surveyors)
Range of salary is 5,732 $ to 7,321 $ a month.
Average of salary is 6,522 $ a month
Note: Experience in the job is range from less than 1 year to 20 years +.
Reward from public for Chevron
Employees’ Choice – 50 Best Places to Work, Glassdoor, 2011
Employees’ Choice -50 Best Places to Work, Glassdoor, 2010
Best Places to Work for LGBT Equality, Human Rights Campaign, 2010
Best Workplaces for Commuters, National Center for Transit Research at USF, 2010
Employees’ Choice -50 Best Places to Work, Glassdoor, 2009
Top 200 of the Global 2000 (#10), Forbes, 2009
America’s Top Companies, Forbes, 2009
Barron’s 500, Barron’s, 2009
50 Best Manufacturing Companies, IndustryWeek, 2009
Most Admired Companies for Minority Professionals, Hispanic Engineer, 2009
Top Entry Level Employers, CollegeGrad, 2009